Address - defines whom the speaker is addressing

In standard realism, address is to the other dialogue partner or partners. These characters speak to each other, within the story space or diegesis. (See Standard production.)

In monologue, the address is either to oneself, or it can be expressly to the listener, in 'direct address'.

The narrator/commentator addresses the listener directly.

Unless it is direct, address places the listeners outside the story space (diegesis), as eavesdroppers.

See Diegetic within the story world of the play) and nondiegetic (without a source in the story)


Consider the example of address in the opening sequence of Under Milk Wood - "Listen!". Narration in the radio plays is more likely to acknowledge the listening audience, by contrast with film, where the spectators are rarely addressed directly and the narration does not draw attention to itself.
Address in the radio monologue play can be especially ambiguous. The style of address is to the single listener, listening alone. Address is a complex and interesting issue in radio.

Assignment on address:
Collect examples from plays.
Analyse the address of DJs, the news, a R4 feature, 'Woman's Hour'.


 CONTINUING THROUGH THE SITE:    to        naming

Production issues in detail


  record 'umms' from all the characters to store

    scene structure

  dialogue is more than words

      SOUND BOX - production sound effects archive

 atmos and soundscapes

  double frame - triple frame


 underscoring music - fighting the dialogue

   'moving camera' technique



 'Will you turn that music down!'

18-second rule 
  drop-ins   sound pictures

 number the scenes carefully with a system  voice in the mind = interiorizing

 time-space rule or jump cut

See Analysing radio drama

To Analysing radio drama
To Radio Drama Theory Lesson Plan






This site is 'Radio Drama - directing, acting, technical, learning & teaching, researching, styles, genres'. See INDEX to navigate also.  Complete curriculum of scripts, techniques (acting & directing & post-production & genre styles), advice, sound files - effects and atmoses (with no copyright and so free to use), detailed script commentaries, etc.


Academic material on this site is Creative Commons License Alan Beck is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License.

Learn about radio drama on this site along with my book - Beck, Alan, Radio Acting, London: A & C Black ISBN 0-7136-4631-4 Available on Amazon. CLICK HERE.

To the WELCOME PAGE for Alan Beck's sites. See more of Alan Beck's work.


Any opinions expressed in this site are the personal opinions of the owner of the site. IF YOU HAVE COMMENTS, PLEASE EMAIL TO :

Check here for address and further information concerning radio
Page provided by FREE GoFTP Client